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Another prominent Yaksha found mention in Mahabharata is Sthunakarna. And situated on the rocky elevation this expanse of excellent water was exceedingly fair. Jains offer them different things in favor of boons for children, Wealth or freedom from fears, illness or disease. The man who beholds Devas while sleeping, or in a wakeful state soon turns mad, and the spirit under whose influence these hallucinations take place is called the Deva spirit. At (3:160) is mentioned an encounter between Pandava Bhima and the Yaksha army. He converted Shikhandini, the daughter of Panchala king Drupada into a male by exchanging his male sexuality with her. (3:41). In the epic Mahabharata (V, 192, 44), a mention is made of Manibhadra as Yaksha Raja and Kubera’s chief attendant. Kubera ruled … This spot is pure and holy. There, liveth that foremost of birds named Garuda. Protected by them, and also watched over by the Rakshasas, these mountains have been rendered inaccessible. Yakṣa (यक्ष): Yaksha or Yakkha (Pāli) is the name of a broad class of nature-spirits or minor deities who appear in Hindu and Buddhist mythology. Lomasa said, now hast thou left behind the mountains Usiravija, Mainaka and Sweta, as well as the Kala hills, O son of Kunti, O bull among the descendants of Bharata, here flow before thee the seven Gangas. Gandharva is similar to these topics: Mahoraga, Kshetrapala, List of Gandharvas and more. The term yakkha as applied to purisa is evidently used in an exceptionally philosophical sense as meaning soul in such passages as ettavata yakkhassa suddhi (SN.vs.478), or ettavat aggam no vadanti h eka, yakkhassa suddhim idha panditase (SN.vs.875). Arjuna had encountered Yakshas in Khandava forests. The banks of river Narmada is described as the birthplace of Yaksha king Kuvera (Vaisravana), where his father Visravas, who was a sage, lived (MBh 3,89). (Mahabharata: 3,89). In Indian Art, male yakṣas are portrayed either as fearsome warriors or as portly, stout and dwarf-like. At (3:229) this is more clear:- It is in this region that (Kuvera’s gardens called) Chitraratha lie, and it is here that the asylum of (the Munis called the) Vaikhanasas is situate. Maniman is mentioned as a friend of Kubera and a leader of the army. Expeditions of Pandavas (3:139) guided by sage Lomasa:- They can, without doubt, displace even the lord of the Devas from his seat. ... Kubera is the treasurer of the gods and overlord of the semi-divine Yakshas, the Guhyakas, Kinnaras and Gandharvas, who act as his assistants and protectors of the … For female, see Yakkhi. They are the sons of the sage Kashyapa and Khasa. The Yakshas, milking the Earth, got the power of disappearance at will (7,67). The feminine Form of the word is yakṣī (यक्षी) or Yakshini (yakṣiṇī, यक्षिणी). King Vaisravana or Kubera was the ruler of Lanka which was guarded by hosts of Rakshasas. Thus not only is Sakka, king of the gods, so referred to (M.i.252; J.iv.4; DA.i.264), but even the Buddha is spoken of as a yakkha in poetic diction (M.i.386). The Mahâsamaya-sutta also mentions mountain spirits from the Himalaya, Satagiri, and Mount Vepulla. And within it stood a mansion with high walls and a gateway, plastered over with powdered earth, and rich with smoke bearing the fragrance of fried paddy. It also means "courageous and strong" (yong jian). When you look up a reference book, they call it the Yaksha cult. in popular belief, a kind of ghost, goblin or ogre. Many gods, such as Kakudha, are so addressed (S.i.54). That adorable Being, leaving Lanka and followed by Gandharvas, Yakshas, Rakshasas, and Kinnaras, went to live on mount Gandhamadana (near Kailasa, Tibet). A class of non human beings generally described as amanussa. O king, at this place eighty thousand fleet Gandharvas, and four times as many Kimpurushas and Yakshas of various shapes and forms, holding various weapons, attend upon Manibhadra, king of the Yakshas. Delicious and cooling breezes murmuring through forests of tall Mandaras, and bearing fragrance of extensive plantations of jasmine, as also of the lotuses on the bosom of the river Alaka and of the Nandana-gardens, always minister to the pleasure of the King of the Yakshas. The man who shows disrespect to the Siddhas and who is cursed by them in return, soon runs mad and the evil influence by which this is brought about, is called the Siddha spirit. གནོད་སྤྱིན་, nöjin; Wyl. He is regarded in Hinduism as the Lord of all wealth. (Mahisha himself was the son of an Asura in his wife belonging to the Yaksha tribe. In Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist texts, the yakṣa has a dual personality. They are mentioned with Devas, Rakkhasas, Danavas, Gandhabbas, Kinnaras, and Mahoragas (? The Gandharvas, the Yakshas, and the Siddhas were aboundand in the north (5,111). Rakshasa Ravana defeated Kuvera in battle and obtained from him the sovereignty of Lanka. and the Rakshasa king, Ravana, were both sons of the sage Visrava Paulastya from two different wives. It is here, that the celestial stream called Mandakini, and the mountain Mandara are to be seen. and Ramayana and many Puranas attest that Rakshasas , Yakshas and Gandharvas were related and had inter - marriages . And it was frequented by the celestial sages and the Yakshas and the Kimpurushas and the Rakshasas and the Kinnaras; Hundreds and thousands of Rakshasas, named Krodhavasas, were guarding that lake, wearing uniforms and armed with various weapons. The King of Yakshas, Vaisravana and the Rakshasa king, Ravana, were both sons of the sage Visrava Paulastya from two different wives. In Buddhist literature, the yakṣa are the attendants of Vaiśravaṇa, the Guardian of the Northern Quarter, a beneficent god who protects the righteous. In many stories, they harrass mortals, chiefly by enchanting forests, lakes and rivers and killing any human who ventures near them. Yaksha is generally on the right-hand side of the Jina idol and Yakshini on the left-hand side. Section 13:19 describes sage Ashtavakra's expedition to this territory:-. Some Jains also believe that Yaksha and Yakshini look after the well-being of Tirthankaras. Their king Kubera is said to be the wealthiest of all beings. . On the one hand, a yakṣa may be an inoffensive nature-fairy, associated with woods and mountains; but there is also a darker version of the yakṣa, which is a kind of Ghost (bhuta) that haunts the wilderness and waylays and devours travelers, similar to the rakṣasas. In Hinduism, the Gandharvas (Sanskrit and Hindi: गन्धर्व; Assamese: গন্ধৰ্ব্ব, gandharbba; Bengali: গন্ধর্ব, "gandharba", Kannada: ಗಂಧರ್ವ; Odia: ଗନ୍ଧର୍ବ "gandharva" ; Telugu: గంధర్వ; Tamil: கந்தர்வன், "kantharvan"; Malayalam: ഗന്ധർവ്വൻ, "gandharvan") are male nature spirits and husbands of the Apsaras. Some of these, like Indakuta and Suciloma, are capable of intelligent questioning on metaphysics and ethics. To the latter origin belong the stories connected with vimanas found in or near the sea or in lakes. Yakshas are the mythological character in Hindu mythology, who are a link between human and gods. At (14:16) Pandavas were mentioned as mining this gold. They had kinship with another more ferocious tribe, the Rakshasas. subjects of Kubera, the god of wealth. Entering that mansion, Sikhandini, the daughter of Drupada, began to reduce herself by foregoing all food for many days. From fear of that Yaksha men never went into that forest. Yakshas. As ogres, giants and ogresses yakshas are popular as well in Thai folklore. They are evil, malignant and violent. According to Hinduism, Deva (the Gods), Gandharva (the musician of the Gods), Yaksha (Natural Spirit), Kinnar (the Trans genders), Nag (the Snake), Nayeka (Actress), Bhairava (concierge of cremation grounds) Pishacha and Dakinie (spirits) Are also considered as … Here the Yaksha is addressed as a Guhyaka, the one who dwells in caves or in hidden places. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Essays on the Gandharvas, the Apsares, the Yakshas, the Kinnaras by N.G.Tavakar at the best online prices at … Yaksha (Skt. If there are yakshas. It is here that the gardens called Saugandhi-kanaka are always guarded by the Rakshasas. The essays throwing new light on the gandharvas, the apsarases, the yakshas, and the kinnaras Fog of myths and legends series: Amazon.es: N. G Tavakar: Libros en idiomas extranjeros He rested for some more time by the side of that lake in the course of the Vahuda whose shores he had reached. When the spirit of Yakshas enters into the system of a human being by some accident, he loses his reason immediately, and such a spirit is called the Yaksha spirit. The spot where Ganga rusheth past, cleaving the foremost of mountains which is frequented by Gandharvas and Yakshas and Rakshasas and Apsaras, and inhabited by hunters, and Kinnaras, is called Gangadwara (3:90). This page was last edited on 27 January 2016, at 05:13. And this lake was the sporting region of the high-souled Kuvera, the king of the Yakshas. In Hindu law, a Gandharva marriage is one contracted by mutual consent and without formal rituals. An epithet frequently applied is mahiddhika (E.g., Pv.ii.9; J.vi.118). Rakshasa a follower of the Buddha . Nagas) (E.g., J.v.420). These are spiritual concepts, or subtle spiritual faculties or energies in the layer of consciousness. The great Yaksha Amogha with his attendants—the Jambhaka Yakshas and other Rakshasas were mentioned as army men of Kartikeya, in his battle with Asura Mahisha (3:230). Some are part animal, usually a bird or . Yakshas are sometimes considered to be a class of the Gandharvas, but are definitely of a more malevolent disposition. Gandharvas were the original resident of Mount Sumeru. 45, 55) they range immediately above the Petas; in fact, some of the happier Petas are called Yakkhas. On the one hand, a yakṣa may be an inoffensive nature-fairy, associated with woods and mountains; but there is also a darker version of the yakṣa, which is a kind of ghost (bhuta) that haunts the wilderness and waylays and devours travelers, similar to the rakṣasas. yakṣa; Tib. Hither, is the asylum, known by the name of Vadari Badrinath. That unearthly receptacle of waters was covered with celestial Saugandhika lotuses. The last term is significant as showing that yakkha also means man. In earlier periods, they were regarded mainly as devotees of Jina, and have supernatural powers. It is here that the brilliant and shining gold mines of Himavat exhibit themselves to the illustrious and regenerate Rishi Jimuta and hence known by the name of the Jaimuta gold. For a long time they were thought to be fairies, before the first wave of Danava migration from present day to europe towards the Hindu kush mountains. Yakshas (Thai: ยักษ์, Yak) are an important element in Thai temple Art and architecture. He had a chariot called Pushpaka capable of going everywhere according to the will of the rider. Some sections of Jains looked at yaksas and yaksanis for the immediate returns, and gave them the places in their temples. Kubera is sometimes mentioned as a Rakshasa king. Because all the treasures of the north stretches in a line towards the east and the west, therefore is the north sometimes called the central region. He proceeded more and more towards the north and at last reached the Himavat mountains peopled by Siddhas and CharanasArrived at the Himavat mountains, that foremost of Brahamanas then came upon the sacred river Vahuda whose waters produce great merit. Some Yaksa were and are known for bestowing fertility and Wealth upon their devotes. According to the Mahavamsa, Prince Vijaya encountered the royalty of the Yakkhas. They are the sons of the sage Kashyapa and Khasa. The Yakkhas served as loyal subjects with the Vijiyan dynasty and the Yakkha chieftain sat on equal height to the Sri Lankan leaders on festival days. They guard the Somaand play beautiful music for the gods in their palaces. The feminine form of the word is yakṣī (यक्षी) or Yakshini (yakṣiṇī (यक्षिणी), Pāli: yakkhī (यक्खी) or yakkhiṇī (यक्खिणी)). Sthanakvasi and Terapanthi Jains of the Svetambara and Taranpanthi Jains of the Digambaras do not believe in idol worshiping. The illustrious Ashtavakra set out on his journey. And the spirit by whose influence a man smells sweet odour, and becomes cognisant of various tastes (when there are no odoriferous or tasteful substances about him) and soon becomes tormented, is called the Rakshasa spirit. Kubera is sometimes mentioned as a Rakshasa king. There was a dense and solitary forest that was the haunt of a very formidable Yaksha called Sthunakarna. In Hindu mythology, yakshas were benevolent spirits and followers of Kubera, the god of wealth, who is also referred to as Vaishravana. Elsewhere (E.g., A.ii.38) they rank, in progressive order, between manussa and gandhabba. The Yakkhas (or Yakshas) though hardly demons (as their name is often rendered) are mostly ill disposed to the human race, sometimes man-eaters and often of unedifying conduct. They are mentioned as … According to a passage in the Vimanavatthu Commentary, (VvA.333) which gives illustrations, the term is used for Sakka, the Four Regent Gods (Maharajano), the followers of Vessavana, and also for puriso (individual soul?). Kubera came to see Bhima the destroyer of his army. Yakshas are regarded as followers of the heavenly king Vaishravana who is said to dwell halfway up the northern slope of Mount Sumeru, and also as guardians of the northern quarter. They are very long lived and possess magical powers, although they can be defeated by men without magic. A gandharva (Sanskrit) or gandhabba (Pāli) (Japanese: 乾闥婆 Kendatsuba) is one of the lowest-ranking devas in Bud- dhist cosmology. Usually, they are found in pair around the idols of Jinas as male (yaksha) and female (yakshini) guardian deities. (3,85) Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 174tells us Pandvas journey twelfth year of their sojourn in forests having arrived reach Sara… They sing songs and play "Sarangi" very well. In Hinduism, the Gandharvas (Sanskrit: गंधर्व, gandharva) are male nature spirits, husbands of the Apsarases. Topic. In Vishnu Purana, Vayu Purana and Padma Purana, a curse that Durvasa laid upon Indra is described as the indirect reason for the famous churning of the o One of a special class of powerful "non human" beings - sometimes kindly, sometimes murderous and cruel - corresponding roughly to the fairies and ogres of Western fairy tales. In these regions their power is very great. Jainism provides very clear foundations and guidelines, and it is up to every individual jains to decide which idols to worship and which ones that should just be acknowledged. Yakshas are usually associated with north side. Some, at least, of the yakkhas are called rukkha devata (E.g., J.iii.309, 345; Pv.i.9; PvA.5) (spirits of trees), and others bhummadevata, (PvA.45,55) (spirits of the earth), who, too, seem to have resided in trees. Yakshas are sometimes considered to be a class of the Gandharvas, but are definitely of a more malevolent disposition. There Gandharvas and Yakshas and Apsaras live (13:102). The region, called Mandakini, of king Vaisravana is attained by those highly blessed persons for whom are every joy and comfort. Generally speaking, the Yakkhas were decadent divinities, beings half deified, having a devas supernormal powers, particularly as regards influencing people, partly helpful, partly harmful. Over time, people started worshiping these deities as well. And that evil spirit by whose influence men are always tormented by Pisachas, is called the Paisacha spirit. The Yakshas were a kind of beings whose king, Vaisravana or Kuvera, was a worshipper of Siva. Here Krodhovasa Rakshasas were mentioned as part of Kubera's army. They live on earth or in air. Demon, gender: male. Here Agni blazeth forth without intermission. Yaksha Kingdom refers to the territory of a tribe of mythical creatures called Yakshas who were one of the Exotic tribes of ancient India. This article is about Yakshas in Indian epic literature. It is known that excepting the first forty seconds the grey twilight preceding nightfall hath been appointed for the wandering of the Yakshas, the Gandharvas and the Rakshasas, all of whom are capable of going everywhere at will (1,172). They guard earthly treasures and protect gates and moats. Rishi Yaksha of great intelligence succeeded in restoring the Niruktas which had disappeared from the surface of the Earth and sunk into nether regions (12:342). A small population of "Gandhava" is still found in the mid and western part of Nepal, specially in Kaski district. In Hinduism, the gandharvas (Sanskrit: गन्धर्व, gandharva, Tamil:கந்தர்வர், Telugu:గంధర్వ) are male nature spirits, husbands of the Apsaras.Some are part animal, usually a bird or horse.They have superb musical skills. Brahma-vodhya, and Vrihadvati were mentioned as rivers of Yaksha regions (6:9). Now wilt thou see the play-ground of the Devas, marked with their footprints, as we have passed the mountain Kala. The female (yakkhini) is generally considered more treacherous than the male. Here, in this quarter, at a place called Usiravija, by the side of the golden lake, king Marutta performed, a sacrifice. One of the eight kinds of nonhuman beings mentioned in Buddhist literature. He then beheld a gate of gold. Mankanaka is mentioned as a Yaksha and one of the gate keepers of Kubera (3:83). It was here, on the breast of Kailasa, that Kubera, was installed on the sovereignty of the Rakshasas, the Yakshas, and the Gandharvas. Karna had encountered Yakshas in Mahendra mountains. Beholding the Rishi arrived there, all the Rakshasas having Manibhadra for their head, who were engaged in protecting that lake abounding with beautiful lotuses, came out in a body for welcoming and honouring the illustrious traveller. There is a specific type of gold called Jambunada from which Yakshas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, etc used to make their ornaments.Gandharvas are also said to be very powerful warriors who don’t fear any king. When a person beholds his dead ancestors while he is seated at ease, or lying in his bed, he soon loses his reason, and the spirit which causes this illusion of sensible perception, is called the ancestral spirit. And it sprang from the cascades contiguous to the abode of Kuvera. The banks of river Narmada is described as the birth place of yaksha king Kubera (Vaisravana), where his father Visravas, who was a sage, lived. He saw also the Mandakini and the Nalini of the high-souled Kubera, the Lord of Treasures. The territory of Yakshas under Kubera is mentioned as the region surrounding the Kailasa mountains and Manasa lake (Tibet) in the Himalayas. http://www.chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com/en/index.php?title=Yaksha&oldid=235013. Evil spirit by whose influence men are always tormented by Pisachas, called. Jains also believe that Yaksha and Pandava king Yudhishthira and protect gates and moats and killing any human ventures... Such as Kakudha, are portrayed as beautiful young women with happy round faces and full breasts hips!, was a worshipper of Siva regarded who are yakshas and gandharvas as devotees of Jina, and not! Wife belonging to the Asuras because of their dark deeds see the of. Immortal, and Buddhist mythology, the Medicine Buddha one of the hare in the same area is yakṣī yakṣiṇī... People play `` SARANGI '' very well the last term is significant as that... For children, Wealth or freedom from fears, illness or disease called devata ( E.g., Pv.ii.9 ; )... 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